Nephrology

What is an Anephric Creatinine Rise?

Serum Creatinine can be a deceptive surrogate during an acute kidney injury. It may lag behind acute onset renal failure…

8 months ago

Lithium and Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus: Mechanism

Within the collecting duct of the kidney, Aquaporin water channels (AQP2) under the regulation of anti diuretic hormone (ADH) control the…

3 years ago

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and increased Creatinine: Mechanism

The serum creatinine concentration (Cr) is typically used as a surrogate for renal function. Hence, when increased it is often…

3 years ago

Urea: Ineffective Osmole

Plasma Osmolality: The total solute concentration within a given fluid compartment (Mosm/kg). Hence it is NOT dependent on temperature and…

3 years ago

How does CHF cause AKI?

It is quite common to see accompanying acute kidney injury during a congestive heart failure exacerbation.  WHY? Renal hypo-perfusion secondary…

3 years ago

Hypokalemia Treatment and Dextrose

A common treatment modality for hypokalemia is intravenous potassium replacement; especially in the setting of critically low values (<2.5). When…

3 years ago

Post-hypercapnic Alkalosis: Mechanism

Post hypercapnic alkalosis (PHA) is frequently overlooked as a complication of acutely intubated & mechanically ventilated patients with COPD exacerbations.…

3 years ago

11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and Licorice: Mechanism

Cortisol, the primary glucocorticoid in the body binds to glucocorticoid receptors. However, given its molecular similarity to Aldosterone (mineralcorticoid) it…

3 years ago

Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

Multi system disorder seen only in patients with CKD (GFR <15; rarely with a GFR of 15–29, but FDA currently…

3 years ago

Hydrochlorothiazide (HyperGLUC) Mnemonic

Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is a thiazide diuretic that acts in the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney on the Na/Cl- symporter to…

3 years ago

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