Respirology/ ICU

PFTs: What is pseudorestriction?

Sometimes when interpreting spiromtery, a patient may have what appears to be a mixed obstructive/ restrictive picture. (Reduced FEV1/FVC and…

3 years ago

Factors affecting Pulse Oximetry

Pulse oximetry is almost ubiquitous in the acute medicine setting. It can be very useful but has its limitations. Some…

3 years ago

Asterixis: Causes

Asterixis is considered a form of myoclonus. HOW TO DETECT? Have the patient hold their arms outstretched with fingers and…

4 years ago

Spontaneous vs. Tension Pneumothorax

Spontaneous Pneumothorax Can be either primary (absence of underlying lung pathology) or secondary (due to presence of underlying lung pathology)…

4 years ago

Differential: Upper vs. Lower Lobe Interstitial Lung Disease

Upper Lobe: SET CAP or FASTEN S: Silicosis/sarcoidosis E: Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis) T: Tuberculosis C: Cystic Fibrosis A: Ankylosing…

4 years ago

Lactated Ringer’s (LR)

Isotonic pH 6.6 130 mEq Sodium 4 mEq Potassium 3 mEq Calcium 109 mEq Chloride 28 mEq Sodium Lactate (provides…

4 years ago

Pulmonary Embolism causing Obstructive Shock: Mechanism

Obstructive shock occurs due to obstruction of the cardiovascular system. Commonly due to PE, Tension pneumothorax and Tamponade. HOW? PE…

4 years ago

How to Assess for Nail Clubbing (JAMA)

The JAMA Rational Clinical Examination recommends two clinical signs: The Lovibond angle (angle between proximal nail bed and nail plate)…

4 years ago

Interventions with Mortality Benefit in COPD

Smoking Cessation Long-term Oxygen therapy (>15 hours per day) Lung volume reduction surgery in certain subsets of COPD patients (Emphysema)…

4 years ago

What are Non caseating (Non-necrotizing) Granulomas?

A granuloma is a focal, compact collection of inflammatory cells (i.e histocytes). "Caseation" (translation "turning to cheese"). Non caseating aka Non-necrotizing…

4 years ago

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