What Stones are Radiopaque? (seen on KUB)

STONES SEEN ON X-RAY [70-90% of stones] calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate:: 75-85%     struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate): 15%  [look for…

6 years ago

When to use FeUrea over FeNa?

When trying to determine the etiology of AKI (pre-renal, renal, post-renal) FeNa is often checked. It would be expected in…

6 years ago

What is the urine anion gap?

Urine AG = Urine (Na + K – Cl) NOTE: In the setting of Bicarbonate loss, kidneys will retain Bicarbonate…

6 years ago

Why does Creatinine Clearance overestimate GFR?

Creatinine is a metabolic byproduct generated from muscle breakdown. Creatinine is filtered from blood by the kidneys and is not…

6 years ago

Why does BUN increase with Pre-renal Azotemia?

The ratio is predictive of prerenal injury when BUN:Cr exceeds 20 WHY IS IT ELEVATED? In prerenal injury, urea increases…

6 years ago

Why is it inappropriate to estimate GFR in AKI with CG or MDRD?

The eGFR estimation formulas [(such as Cockcroft-Gault or MDRD)] were derived using patients at steady states, whose renal function was…

6 years ago

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