Hematology/Oncology

Macrophage activation syndrome vs. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a life-threatening complication of rheumatic diseases (i.e SLE, Juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Adult onset Still’s disease).…

2 years ago

Carcinoid syndrome: Mechanism of action

Carcinoid tumors are rare neuroendocrine tumors which originate most often in the bowel, less commonly in the lungs, and rarely…

3 years ago

What are Pseudo Pelger-Huet cells?

Psuedo Pelger-Huet cells have the morphological characterization of Neutrophils with hypolobation [hypo-segmented]. It can be a benign inherited defect (1/6000)…

4 years ago

What is Tumour Lysis Syndrome?

Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) is an oncologic emergency that most often occurs following initiation of cytotoxic therapy, especially in patients with…

4 years ago

MGUS vs. Multiple Myeloma vs. Waldenstrom’s

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) Asymptomatic premalignant state Common in elderly population (~10% in patients >75 years old) Paraprotein…

4 years ago

pRBCs: Hypotonic solution vs. Ringer Lactate

Do not mix pRBC infusion with hypotonic solution (i.e D5W). Why? The hypotonic solution has a lower osmolarity, will shift…

4 years ago

Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT): Type 1 vs. Type 2

Type 1: Heparin directly causes platelets to aggregate (non-immune). Occurs within 48hrs after initiating heparin; mild, transient and no treatment…

5 years ago

Heinz bodies vs. Howell jolly bodies

Heinz bodies Howell jolly bodies Inclusions within red blood cells composed of denatured hemoglobin They are formed as a result…

5 years ago

Blood test (Iron Studies) results of Iron Deficiency Anemia

A common issue with multiple etiologies, the following test results will help to confirm your clinical suspicion: ↓ Ferritin (If…

5 years ago

Cryoglobulins vs. Cold Agglutinins

Cold Agglutinins => Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) occurring around 28-31°C -> Typically IgM auto antibodies directed against red blood cells,…

5 years ago

This website uses cookies.