Respirology/ ICU

Mechanism of a Mixed Apnea

Mixed apneas are characterized by absent respiratory effort and airflow in the first section of the event and respiratory effort…

2 months ago

How Does Hypothyroidism Cause Hypoventilation?

Although rare, the differential diagnosis of hypoventilation and hypercapnia respiratory failure includes hypothyroidism. It is usually associated with severe hypothyroidism…

2 months ago

What is Peribronchovascular Distribution on CT imaging?

A common finding described on computed tomography (CT) imaging. A disease with a peribronchovascular distribution involves the bronchi, adjacent lymphatics,…

1 year ago

Trapped Lung vs. Lung Entrapment

Though often used synonymously; Trapped Lung and Lung Entrapment technically describe separate entities along the same clinical spectrum. Trapped lung…

2 years ago

Cause of Pericardial Effusion in Pulmonary Hypertension: Pathogenesis

It is not clearly understood why patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) develop pericardial effusions. However, the presence of a pericardial…

2 years ago

When does a Tracheostomy mature?

After creation of a percutaneous tracheotomy site for prolonged ventilation, one of the immediate complications is accident decannulation. Image Credit:…

3 years ago

Hepatopulmonary syndrome vs. Portopulmonary hypertension

Often confused as the same syndrome, Hepatopulmonary syndrome and Portopulmonary hypertension are two distinct disease processes. Both are characterized as…

3 years ago

Alpha 1 Anti Trypsin: Pi*MM, Pi*MZ, Pi*ZZ, Pi*null

Alpha1 antitrypsin (α1 AT) deficiency is the only known genetic abnormality that leads to COPD; it accounts for less than…

3 years ago

What is Hoover Sign?

Hoover's sign refers to the paradoxical inspiratory retraction of the rib cage and lower intercostal interspaces. Normally, the costal margin…

4 years ago

Hypoxia and pulmonary embolism (PE): Mechanism

The clot CAUSES Dead space; which does not cause hypoxia/hypoxemia on its own. ALWAYS ASK ABOUT:  Resp Rate (PE creates…

4 years ago

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