Respirology/ ICU

Trapped Lung vs. Lung Entrapment

Though often used synonymously; Trapped Lung and Lung Entrapment technically describe separate entities along the same clinical spectrum. Trapped lung…

5 months ago

Cause of Pericardial Effusion in Pulmonary Hypertension: Pathogenesis

It is not clearly understood why patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) develop pericardial effusions. However, the presence of a pericardial…

6 months ago

When does a Tracheostomy mature?

After creation of a percutaneous tracheotomy site for prolonged ventilation, one of the immediate complications is accident decannulation. Image Credit:…

2 years ago

Hepatopulmonary syndrome vs. Portopulmonary hypertension

Often confused as the same syndrome, Hepatopulmonary syndrome and Portopulmonary hypertension are two distinct disease processes. Both are characterized as…

2 years ago

Alpha 1 Anti Trypsin: Pi*MM, Pi*MZ, Pi*ZZ, Pi*null

Alpha1 antitrypsin (α1 AT) deficiency is the only known genetic abnormality that leads to COPD; it accounts for less than…

2 years ago

What is Hoover Sign?

Hoover's sign refers to the paradoxical inspiratory retraction of the rib cage and lower intercostal interspaces. Normally, the costal margin…

2 years ago

Hypoxia and pulmonary embolism (PE): Mechanism

The clot CAUSES Dead space; which does not cause hypoxia/hypoxemia on its own. ALWAYS ASK ABOUT:  Resp Rate (PE creates…

3 years ago

Why is LDH elevated in Pleural Fluid from Diuretics: Mechanism

It is common teaching to be judicious when interpreting the thoracentesis results of patients receiving diuretic therapy. It is stated,…

3 years ago

Lung lobes most commonly affected by Aspiration (Upright vs. Supine)

Aspiration events have a gravity-based predilection, meaning the lobes/ lung segments in the most dependent positions are likely affected. Also,…

3 years ago

Consolidation vs. Ground Glass Opacities

Ground glass opacities are hazy increases in lung opacity without obscuration of the underlying parenchymal vessels. Whereas, Consolidation is an…

3 years ago

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