Respirology/ ICU

Hypoxia and pulmonary embolism (PE): Mechanism

The clot CAUSES Dead space; which does not cause hypoxia/hypoxemia on its own. ALWAYS ASK ABOUT:  Resp Rate (PE creates…

5 years ago

Why is LDH elevated in Pleural Fluid from Diuretics: Mechanism

It is common teaching to be judicious when interpreting the thoracentesis results of patients receiving diuretic therapy. It is stated,…

5 years ago

Lung lobes most commonly affected by Aspiration (Upright vs. Supine)

Aspiration events have a gravity-based predilection, meaning the lobes/ lung segments in the most dependent positions are likely affected. Also,…

5 years ago

Consolidation vs. Ground Glass Opacities

Ground glass opacities are hazy increases in lung opacity without obscuration of the underlying parenchymal vessels. Whereas, Consolidation is an…

6 years ago

COPD and Hypoxic Drive: Mechanism

It is common dogma on the wards that oxygen therapy for chronic CO2 retainers should be targeted between 88-92% during…

6 years ago

Paradoxical breathing (abdominal paradox): Mechanism

During a Respiratory exam, the question of paradoxical breathing commonly comes up. The more accurate and correct term is actually…

6 years ago

PFTs: What is pseudorestriction?

Sometimes when interpreting spiromtery, a patient may have what appears to be a mixed obstructive/ restrictive picture. (Reduced FEV1/FVC and…

6 years ago

Factors affecting Pulse Oximetry

Pulse oximetry is almost ubiquitous in the acute medicine setting. It can be very useful but has its limitations. Some…

7 years ago

Asterixis: Causes

Asterixis is considered a form of myoclonus. HOW TO DETECT? Have the patient hold their arms outstretched with fingers and…

7 years ago

Spontaneous vs. Tension Pneumothorax

Spontaneous Pneumothorax Can be either primary (absence of underlying lung pathology) or secondary (due to presence of underlying lung pathology)…

7 years ago

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