Respirology/ ICU

How to Assess for Nail Clubbing (JAMA)

The JAMA Rational Clinical Examination recommends two clinical signs: Img Cred: The JAMA Rational Clinical Examination The Lovibond angle (angle…

6 years ago

Interventions with Mortality Benefit in COPD

Smoking Cessation Long-term Oxygen therapy (>15 hours per day) Lung volume reduction surgery in certain subsets of COPD patients (Emphysema)…

6 years ago

What are Non caseating (Non-necrotizing) Granulomas?

A granuloma is a focal, compact collection of inflammatory cells (i.e histocytes). "Caseation" (translation "turning to cheese"). Non caseating aka Non-necrotizing…

6 years ago

Why expiration film for Pneumothorax?

When a pneumothorax is suspected, an inspiration AND expiration chest x-ray will often be obtained. On an expiratory film, the…

6 years ago

What is Lactate?

WHAT IS IT? Lactate (conjugate base of Lactic acid) is formed from anaerobic metabolism of pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase in the…

6 years ago

What are “Atypical” Pathogens in Pneumonia?

WHO? Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila. Causal agents for Pneumonia (CAP). WHY? They lack a cell wall and…

6 years ago

Warms vs. Cold Shock

Warm Shock  Cold Shock THINK: sepsis, anaphylaxis, neuro/CNS Warm, bounding & wide pulses, good cap refill, flushed Due to  vasodilating…

6 years ago

What is the ‘4-2-1’ rule?

Normally, we use the ‘4-2-1’ rule for calculating rates of maintenance fluid administration: 4mL/kg/hr for each of the 1st 10kg…

6 years ago

What are Pulmonary Infiltrates?

Infiltrates is a term commonly used to describe findings on chest x-ray, but what does it mean? Simply put it…

6 years ago

Epithelial cells in sputum?

Typically a sputum gram stain will be sent off to isolate potential respiratory pathogens. Normally your findings should contain many…

6 years ago

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