1. Smoking Cessation
  2. Long-term Oxygen therapy (>15 hours per day)
  3. Lung volume reduction surgery in certain subsets of COPD patients (Emphysema)
  4. Pulmonary Rehabilitation AFTER a COPD exacerbation


  1. Continuous or nocturnal oxygen therapy in hypoxemic chronic obstructive lung disease: a clinical trial. Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy Trial Group. Ann Intern Med 1980;93:391-8.
  2. Mannino DM, Kiri VA. Changing the burden of COPD mortality. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2006;1(3):219-233.
  3. Puhan MA, Scharplatz M, Troosters T, Steurer J. Respiratory rehabilitation after acute exacerbation of COPD may reduce risk for readmission and mortality — a systematic review. Respir Res. 2005;6:54.
  4. Young J, Fry-Smith A, Hyde C. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with underlying severe emphysema. Thorax. 1999;54(9):779-789.

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