Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is a thiazide diuretic that acts in the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney on the Na/Cl- symporter to reduce blood pressure/ volume. However, like any medication it comes with side effects. A common mnemonic used to remember these effects is HyperGLUC.
HYPERglycemia (It occurs at higher doses of HCTZ (> 50 mg/d); Thiazides have a weak, dose-dependent, effect to stimulate ATP-sensitive K+ channels and cause hyperpolarization of beta cells, thereby inhibiting insulin release)
HYPERlipidemia (cause a 5–15% increase in total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs))
HYPERuricemia (may precipitate acute gouty arthritis)
HYPERcalcemia (increased renal calcium resorption and decrease calcium in urine)
NOTE: It can have HYPO effects in serum: including HYPOkalemia, HYPOnatremia and HYPOtension (decreases blood volume and peripheral vascular resistance)
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