Infectious Diseases

Urine Dipstick: Nitrates and Nitrites

On an urine dipstick for suspected UTI, it is not uncommon to find positive nitrites. Nitrates are normally excreted by…

5 years ago

What is the “Whiff” test?

“Whiff” test => Mix patient's vaginal secretions with potassium hydroxide (KOH) 10% solution. A subsequent fishy odor indicates production of…

5 years ago

Urinary Tract Infections (UTI): KEEPS Mnemonic

Urinary tract infections are a common problem seen in both the outpatient and inpatient setting. For community-acquired UTIs, (KEEPS) is…

5 years ago

What Bacteria is Associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)?

Campylobacter jejuni has been shown by several studies to be strongly associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In the landmark Kuroki…

5 years ago

Asplenia and Encapsulated Bacteria

Splenectomy may be necessary 2° to: 1) trauma 2) cancer (i.e multiple myeloma, ALL, CLL) 3) ITP refractory to treatment. Certain…

5 years ago

Empyema vs. Abscess

Empyema => collection of pus in a pre-existing anatomical cavity (i.e pleura space) Abscess => collection of pus in a…

5 years ago

What is Fever of unknown origin?

Definition: a temperature >38.3 C (101 F) for at least three weeks' duration AND failure to identify a source after…

5 years ago

What’s the difference between penicillin G and penicillin V (VK)?

Both are first generation penicillins Pencillin G => IV or IM Penicillin V (phenoxymethylpenicillin) => more acidic, more stable and…

6 years ago

Why does Tuberculosis tend to reactivate in upper lung lobes?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an obligate aerobe and only survives in oxygenated areas. Exact reason for TB's propensity to reactivate in…

6 years ago

Why give Clindamycin with a Beta-lactam for Group A Strep?

Why give Clindamycin for a Group A Strep infection that is already adequately covered by a Beta-lactam? Proposed rationale: Clindamycin…

6 years ago

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