Uncategorized

Septic Shock: Mechanism and Signaling

Shock is defined as a state where the organs and tissues of the body are not receiving adequate blood perfusion and ultimately, enough oxygen. When this state of hypoperfusion occurs in the context of infection, it is termed “septic shock”.

The mechanism of septic shock becomes problematic due to its widespread nature within the body. When bacteria are degraded, free LPS is released which binds to LPS-binding protein intravascularly. CD14, located on monocytes and macrophages, then binds this LPS-LPS binding protein complex and subsequently recruits and activates monocytes via the Toll-like receptor (TLR). As macrophages become activated, they release interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF). The widespread nature of this reaction causes systemic vasodilation, leading to hypotension and inadequate end organ perfusion, decreased myocardial contractility, diffuse endothelial injury, and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

REFERENCES:

  1. Kemp, W. L., Burns, D. K., & Brown, T. G. (2008). Pathology: The big picture. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.
  2. King, E. G., Bauzá, G. J., Mella, J. R., & Remick, D. G. (2013, September 23). Pathophysiologic mechanisms in septic shock. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/labinvest2013110
Get Medical Pearls directly to your inbox every week!
Weekly posts with high yield medical knowledge, directly to your mailbox!
Dr. C Humphreys

Internal Medicine

Share
Published by
Dr. C Humphreys

Recent Posts

Nocturia and OSA: Mechanism

Nocturia is a common symptom associated with obstructive sleep apnea. [1] Img Cred: Am J…

8 months ago

ASD vs. VSD Murmur Difference

ASD (Atrial Septal Defect) Wide, Fixed split S2 (in contrast to the normal variation in…

8 months ago

Mechanism of a Mixed Apnea

Mixed apneas are characterized by absent respiratory effort and airflow in the first section of…

2 years ago

How Does Hypothyroidism Cause Hypoventilation?

Although rare, the differential diagnosis of hypoventilation and hypercapnia respiratory failure includes hypothyroidism. It is…

2 years ago

Why is Pro-BNP/ BNP lower in Obesity?

B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a hormone created in response to cardiac wall stretch due…

2 years ago

What is Peribronchovascular Distribution on CT imaging?

A common finding described on computed tomography (CT) imaging. A disease with a peribronchovascular distribution…

3 years ago

This website uses cookies.