Endocrinology

Why does Iron Poisoning cause Metabolic Acidosis?

Iron poisoning is often listed in the classic metabolic acidosis mnemonic MUDPILES, but how does it cause an anion gap…

4 years ago

Diastolic Hypertension in Hypothyroidism: Mechanism

Hypothyroidism has been recognized as a cause of secondary hypertension. Img Cred: http://circ.ahajournals.org/ Previous studies on the prevalence of hypertension…

4 years ago

Hyperparathyroidism: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary

Primary: Elevated PTH that results in elevated Ca2+. Typically caused by parathyroid adenoma.  Secondary: Elevated PTH due to Low Ca2+ (Hypocalcemia).…

4 years ago

How does pH affect Calcium?

Ionized Calcium (Ca2+) and Hydrogen ions (H+) compete for binding to Albumin (-) and other negatively charged protein molecules. WHEN…

5 years ago

Thyroxine-binding Globulin (TBG) and Pregnancy

During the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, serum TBG levels will increase by two fold. This causes more T3/T4 to…

5 years ago

Why is Sodium (Na+) times two in Osmolar gap?

The serum osmolality is calculated by the concentrations of the different effective osmoles which compose it. The formula: Calculated Sosm  …

5 years ago

Dawn phenomenon vs. Somogyi effect

Both will result in AM (morning) hyperglycemia. DAWN: "Think Dawn is Down" => Early morning hypergylcemia without preceding hypogylcemia. Secondary…

5 years ago

Hyperprolactinemia and Hypothyroidism: Mechanism

Hyperprolactinemia is one of the most common endocrine disorders in the hypothalamic- pituitary axis. Although the most common etiologies of…

5 years ago

Wolff-Chaikoff Effect vs. Jod-Basedow Phenomenon

Wolff-Chaikoff Effect: Iodine induced hypothyroidism. Can occur in normal or hyperthyroid state. Can be used as treatment against hyperthyroidism (i.e…

5 years ago

Pheochromocytoma: Why Alpha and Beta Blockers?

Pheochromocytoma= A rare catecholamine producing tumour that originate from chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla. Patients classically present with: paroxysmal…

5 years ago

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