Endocrinology

Causes of Pancreatitis: I GET SMASHED

Idiopathic (i.e microlithiasis) ·         Gallstones Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)         Trauma (especially blunt abdominal trauma)·   Scorpion bites (Tityus trinitatis, Trinidad) Mumps.…

6 years ago

Signs of Hypocalcemia

HYPOCALCEMIA Low serum calcium levels in the blood< 2.12mmol/L (TOTAL) and <1.16mmol/L (+) Signs and Symptoms POSITIVE bathmotropic effects due…

6 years ago

Why does Hyperglycemia cause Hyponatremia?

The human body will maintain a serum [Na+] between 135 and 145 mEq/L. Hyponatremia in the context of hypergylcemia is…

6 years ago

Why does Addison disease cause hyperpigmented skin?

 Addison disease => autoimmune destruction of adrenal glands The destruction results in less cortisol production by adrenals. This causes an…

6 years ago

Fruity Breath in DKA: Mechanism

Acetone produces the characteristic fruity odor on the breath found in some patients in DKA. HOW? Acetone is very volatile…

6 years ago

Serum vs. Total Body Potassium in DKA

When pH drops, K+ is pumped out of the cell in exchange for H+ because the body is trying to…

6 years ago

WHAT IS THE ANION GAP?

Anion gap = Difference between the unmeasured cations and unmeasured  anions in the serum [artificial] It will done with serum…

6 years ago

Clinical Features of Diabetes

Type 1 Type 2 Abrupt Polyuria (increased urine production) HOW? The increase glucose in the blood will act as an…

6 years ago

Effects of Insulin

Metabolic effects Insulin stimulates Insulin inhibits Carbohydrate metabolism Glucose transport in adipose tissue and muscle Rate of glycolysis in muscle…

6 years ago

C peptide and Diabetes

The connecting peptide, or C-peptide, is a short 31-amino-acid protein that connects insulin's A-chain to its B-chain in the proinsulin…

6 years ago

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