Gastrointestinal

NAFLD vs. NASH

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects over 1/4th of the world's population. It has become the leading cause of cirrhosis…

1 year ago

Hepatopulmonary syndrome vs. Portopulmonary hypertension

Often confused as the same syndrome, Hepatopulmonary syndrome and Portopulmonary hypertension are two distinct disease processes. Both are characterized as…

1 year ago

Why Prednisolone for Alcoholic Hepatitis?

Patients presenting with severe alcoholic hepatitis (Discriminant Function value ≥32) have high short-term mortality and may benefit from treatment with…

2 years ago

Factor VIII: DIC vs Liver Disease (Cirrhosis)

Distinguishing between the coagulation abnormalities of liver disease vs. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) can be difficult as clinical and biochemical findings…

2 years ago

Why does Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency cause Cirrhosis?

Alpha-1 antitrypsin is an anti protease that protects the lungs from endogenous elastases, collagenases, and protease. These enzymes are responsible for…

3 years ago

Compensated vs. Decompensated Cirrhosis

Compensated: Patients with cirrhosis that have not developed major complications of cirrhosis. Decompensated: Patients with cirrhosis who have developed major…

3 years ago

Why 2:1 Ratio of AST/ALT in Alcoholic Hepatitis?

Alcoholic hepatitis lab findings classically reveal serum AST/ ALT >2. (Although rarely above 300 IU per milliliter). Although this finding…

3 years ago

Indications for Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP) Prophylaxis

Antibiotic prophylaxis for patients with risk factors for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) include: Known history of SBP: Typically prolonged outpatient…

3 years ago

Proton Pump Inhibitors for Upper GI Bleed: Mechanism

During the bleed, there will be sympathetic mediated vasoconstriction and also hemostasis (platelet plug). It has been demonstrated in an…

4 years ago

SSRI and Upper GI Bleed: Mechanism

SSRIs have been implicated in a modest increase risk of Upper GI bleeds in recent meta-analysis and review. [6] PROPOSED…

4 years ago

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