Hepatopulmonary syndrome vs. Portopulmonary hypertension

Often confused as the same syndrome, Hepatopulmonary syndrome and Portopulmonary hypertension are two distinct disease processes. Both are characterized as…

2 years ago

7 I’s of DKA: Causes Mnemonic

When a patient presents with DKA, it is important to try to elucidate the cause. An easy way to remember…

2 years ago

Alpha 1 Anti Trypsin: Pi*MM, Pi*MZ, Pi*ZZ, Pi*null

Alpha1 antitrypsin (α1 AT) deficiency is the only known genetic abnormality that leads to COPD; it accounts for less than…

2 years ago

Why Prednisolone for Alcoholic Hepatitis?

Patients presenting with severe alcoholic hepatitis (Discriminant Function value ≥32) have high short-term mortality and may benefit from treatment with…

2 years ago

Factor VIII: DIC vs Liver Disease (Cirrhosis)

Distinguishing between the coagulation abnormalities of liver disease vs. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) can be difficult as clinical and biochemical findings…

2 years ago

What is Hoover Sign?

Hoover's sign refers to the paradoxical inspiratory retraction of the rib cage and lower intercostal interspaces. Normally, the costal margin…

2 years ago

Why does the lupus malar rash spare the nasolabial folds?

Malar rash (also known as the “butterfly rash,”) is an acute manifestation of lupus (SLE) seen in over 50% of…

3 years ago

Why no Nitrates in Right Ventricle Myocardial Infarction (MI)?

Up to 40% of inferior wall Myocardial infarctions have associated right ventricular involvement. Venodilation and medications that decrease RV filling…

3 years ago

What is Ventricular interdependence?

Ventricular interdependence occurs when there is discordance. This results from the heart ventricles filling out of phase with one another.…

3 years ago

Hypoxia and pulmonary embolism (PE): Mechanism

The clot CAUSES Dead space; which does not cause hypoxia/hypoxemia on its own. ALWAYS ASK ABOUT:  Resp Rate (PE creates…

3 years ago

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