JAMA: Does this patient have Heart Failure? Likelihood Ratios

Two systematic reviews have assessed the diagnostic accuracy of elements of the medical history, physical examination, or readily available tests…

3 years ago

JAMA- Aortic Dissection [Likelihood Ratios]

SYMPTOMS THAT RULE OUT  (Lowest -LR):  The absence of pain of sudden onset substantively decreases the probability of dissection (negative…

3 years ago

NAFLD vs. NASH

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects over 1/4th of the world's population. It has become the leading cause of cirrhosis…

3 years ago

Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: Mechanism

Functions on the premise of mismatch in coronary perfusion after a vasodilator (e.g dipyridamole) is administered.  HOW? The coronary vessels…

3 years ago

Hepatopulmonary syndrome vs. Portopulmonary hypertension

Often confused as the same syndrome, Hepatopulmonary syndrome and Portopulmonary hypertension are two distinct disease processes. Both are characterized as…

3 years ago

7 I’s of DKA: Causes Mnemonic

When a patient presents with DKA, it is important to try to elucidate the cause. An easy way to remember…

3 years ago

Alpha 1 Anti Trypsin: Pi*MM, Pi*MZ, Pi*ZZ, Pi*null

Alpha1 antitrypsin (α1 AT) deficiency is the only known genetic abnormality that leads to COPD; it accounts for less than…

3 years ago

Why Prednisolone for Alcoholic Hepatitis?

Patients presenting with severe alcoholic hepatitis (Discriminant Function value ≥32) have high short-term mortality and may benefit from treatment with…

4 years ago

Factor VIII: DIC vs Liver Disease (Cirrhosis)

Distinguishing between the coagulation abnormalities of liver disease vs. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) can be difficult as clinical and biochemical findings…

4 years ago

What is Hoover Sign?

Hoover's sign refers to the paradoxical inspiratory retraction of the rib cage and lower intercostal interspaces. Normally, the costal margin…

4 years ago

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