Neurology

Myopathy vs. Neuropathy

This is an important clinical distinction to make, but may not always be easy.  Myopathy (Break down or inflammation of…

3 years ago

Rinne vs. Weber: Explained

Rinne and Weber testing are useful clinical bedside assessments to differentiate the two primary causes of hearing loss. RINNE (+):…

3 years ago

Pronator Drift: Mechanism

Pronator Drift is commonly assessed during a stroke assessment. It is a marker of upper motor neuron weakness. MECHANISM: In…

3 years ago

Triad of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

Classical findings of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) include: Ataxia (typically the initial and most prominent symptom of NPH) Dementia Urinary…

3 years ago

Anterior spinal artery syndrome

Anterior cord syndrome arises from damage to the spinothalamic and corticospinal pathways.  Occurs due to injury of the anterior spinal…

4 years ago

Caloric Reflex (COWS): How does it work?

The Caloric Reflex Test is used to test the Vestibulo–ocular reflex. It is one of the tests used to assess…

4 years ago

Triad of Wernicke’s Encephalopathy

Classical clinical symptoms of Wernicke's Encephalopathy: Encephalopathy (i.e disorientation, inattentiveness) Oculomotor dysfunction (i.e typically bilateral horizontal nystagmus, lateral rectus palsy)…

4 years ago

Triad of Lewy Body Dementia

Classical clinical symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia (LBD) include: Fluctuating level of cognitive impairment Recurring visual hallucinations Parkinsonism (i.e bradykinesia,…

4 years ago

Neuroleptics and Prolactin: Mechanism

Neuroleptic medications can produce hyperprolactinemia even at very low doses and are the most common cause of galactorrhea in psychiatric…

4 years ago

Lambert-Eaton vs. Myasthenia Gravis

Myasthenia Gravis Lambert-Eaton Auto-antibodies against ACh Receptor POST-synaptic Motor response decreases with successive contractions of voluntary skeletal muscles (particularly ocular, masticatory,…

4 years ago

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