Neurology

How can Levodopa cross the blood-brain barrier, while Dopamine cannot?

Exogenous Dopamine is unable to cross the tight junctions of the endothelial cells in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Dopamine has no clinically…

4 years ago

Dementia with Lewy bodies: Why to avoid Haldol

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common cause of neurodegenerative dementia in the elderly (accounting for 15-20%…

4 years ago

Why Steroids before Antibiotics in Bacterial Meningitis?

Studies have demonstrated that patients with pneumococcal meningitis had reduced mortality (14 versus 34 percent placebo) and hearing loss (ototoxicity)…

4 years ago

Alcohol Withdrawal & GABA: Mechanism

MECHANISM: Abrupt withdrawal is thought to reduce inhibitory neurotransmission and enhance excitatory neurotransmission. Caused by the effects of alcohol on…

4 years ago

ADLs (DEATH) and IADLs (SHAFT)

ADLS (Activities of daily living): Often used to assess functional status; Mostly used for elderly or chronically ill patients. D-…

5 years ago

What are the Reversible Causes of Dementia? (mnemonic)

VERY common question on internal medicine wards, and important to recognize as early as possible! The mnemonic commonly used is…

5 years ago

When to administer Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA)

tPA is considered a gold standard for treatment of patients with ischemic strokes. Mechanism: Works by dissolving clots and restoring/improving…

5 years ago

VITAMINS- Causes for Seizures

Vascular (Stroke, Hemorrhage, AV Malformation, Malignant Hypertension) Infection (Meningitis, Abscess, Encephalitis) Trauma Auto-immune (CNS, Vasculitis) Metabolic (Hyponatremia, Hypocalcemia, Hypogylcemia, Hypomagnesemia,…

5 years ago

What are the signs of Pseudo seizures (Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures)?

Controversial topic, and do not refer to them as Pseudo seizures to staff/neurology. The correct terminology is Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures.…

5 years ago

Why CT before LP in Suspected Meningitis?

Traditional thinking was if there is a space occupying lesion, it may result in increased ICP. When you perform a…

5 years ago

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