Nephrology

Piperacillin-tazobactam induced hypokalemia: Mechanism

Piperacillin/tazobactam is a commonly used antibiotic with tolerable side effects and broad antimicrobial activity in general practice. Rare side-effects can…

4 years ago

How can Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis) be Prevented?

Adequate fluid intake (>2 Litres/day) Decrease salt intake to less than 2300 mg/day Minimize Oxalate intake (for patients with calcium…

4 years ago

Indications for Dialysis in Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)

1. Refractory Fluid Overload 2. Severe hyperkalemia (>6.5 mEq/L) or rapidly rising potassium levels 3. Signs of uremia including pericarditis,…

4 years ago

Hypercalcemia and Renal failure: Mechanism

Calcium homeostasis is normally under very tight control! There are 3 main sites of control: the gastrointestinal tract, bone, and…

4 years ago

Hypomagnesemia and Hypokalemia: Mechanism

Magnesium deficiency is often associated with refractory hypokalemia (In up to 50% of cases there is concomitant hypomagnesemia). WHY? Exact…

4 years ago

Beer Potomania: Mechanism

WHAT IS IT? Hyponatraemia (dilutional) secondary to excessive alcohol consumption and undernourishment (i.e low protein/salt) HOW? Malnourished chronic alcoholics with minimal…

4 years ago

Azotemia vs. Uremia

Azotemia => Characterized by increased levels of nitrogen-containing compounds (i.e urea, BUN) NOT severe enough to cause symptoms. Uremia =>…

4 years ago

Purple Urine Syndrome: Mechanism

Rarely, there can be purple discoloration of the urine, collecting bag, and tubing (the purple urine bag syndrome). The purple…

4 years ago

Biochemical signs of Overdiuresis

Diuresis is an important treatment in the setting of fluid overload. But it has potential side effects. Of NOTE: Thiazide:…

5 years ago

Why do ACE inhibitors cause cough?

A dry and often bothersome cough is the most common adverse effect of ACE inhibitors. Recent studies indicate that cough…

5 years ago

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