Susceptibility to Vancomycin: E. faecium & E. faecalis

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) first appeared in Europe during the 1980s. It rapidly spread to North America by the 1990s.  Susceptibility:…

5 years ago

Consolidation vs. Ground Glass Opacities

Ground glass opacities are hazy increases in lung opacity without obscuration of the underlying parenchymal vessels. Whereas, Consolidation is an…

6 years ago

COPD and Hypoxic Drive: Mechanism

It is common dogma on the wards that oxygen therapy for chronic CO2 retainers should be targeted between 88-92% during…

6 years ago

Septic Shock: Mechanism and Signaling

Shock is defined as a state where the organs and tissues of the body are not receiving adequate blood perfusion…

6 years ago

Refeeding Syndrome: Mechanism

Refeeding Syndrome is  a set of clinical complications that typically occur in severely malnourished patients as a result of aggressive…

6 years ago

Frank-Starling Mechanism: Physiology

The Frank-Starling mechanism is a relationship characterizing stroke volume with pre-load. Stroke volume is dependent on the following: Pre-load: changes…

6 years ago

Non-MI Causes of ST Elevation

The ST segment on an ECG represents the interval between ventricular depolarization and ventricular repolarization. Image taken from Wikipedia When…

6 years ago

Causes of QT Prolongation

QT interval is the length between the beginning of the QRS complex (ventricular depolarization) and end of the T wave…

6 years ago

Paradoxical breathing (abdominal paradox): Mechanism

During a Respiratory exam, the question of paradoxical breathing commonly comes up. The more accurate and correct term is actually…

6 years ago

PFTs: What is pseudorestriction?

Sometimes when interpreting spiromtery, a patient may have what appears to be a mixed obstructive/ restrictive picture. (Reduced FEV1/FVC and…

6 years ago

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