Refeeding Syndrome: Mechanism

Refeeding Syndrome is  a set of clinical complications that typically occur in severely malnourished patients as a result of aggressive…

4 years ago

Frank-Starling Mechanism: Physiology

The Frank-Starling mechanism is a relationship characterizing stroke volume with pre-load. Stroke volume is dependent on the following: Pre-load: changes…

4 years ago

Non-MI Causes of ST Elevation

The ST segment on an ECG represents the interval between ventricular depolarization and ventricular repolarization. Image taken from Wikipedia When…

4 years ago

Causes of QT Prolongation

QT interval is the length between the beginning of the QRS complex (ventricular depolarization) and end of the T wave…

4 years ago

Paradoxical breathing (abdominal paradox): Mechanism

During a Respiratory exam, the question of paradoxical breathing commonly comes up. The more accurate and correct term is actually…

4 years ago

PFTs: What is pseudorestriction?

Sometimes when interpreting spiromtery, a patient may have what appears to be a mixed obstructive/ restrictive picture. (Reduced FEV1/FVC and…

4 years ago

Lithium and Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus: Mechanism

Within the collecting duct of the kidney, Aquaporin water channels (AQP2) under the regulation of anti diuretic hormone (ADH) control the…

5 years ago

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and increased Creatinine: Mechanism

The serum creatinine concentration (Cr) is typically used as a surrogate for renal function. Hence, when increased it is often…

5 years ago

Urea: Ineffective Osmole

Plasma Osmolality: The total solute concentration within a given fluid compartment (Mosm/kg). Hence it is NOT dependent on temperature and…

5 years ago

How does CHF cause AKI?

It is quite common to see accompanying acute kidney injury during a congestive heart failure exacerbation.  WHY? Renal hypo-perfusion secondary…

5 years ago

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